© Jean-Louis Swiners. Dernière modification : 16 novembre 2013
••••

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L'INNOVATION
UN TOP 100 MONDIAL D'EXPERTS (+ 10 000 h.)


5. S-T-U-V-W

18 mars 2010
S
Sandberg (Birgitta —), Managing and Marketing Radical Innovations. Marketing New Technology (200…)  Non traduit
Sarazin (Benoît —), Misez sur les ruptures de marché. 20 histoires d'innovation réussies,
Sawhney (Mohanbir —), Prandelli (Emanuela—) & Verona (Gianmario —), Collaborating With Customers to Innovate: Conceiving and Marketing Products in the Networking Age (2010)  Non traduit
Sawyer (Keith —), Explaining Creativity. The Science of Human Innovation (2006)  Non traduit
Sawyer (Keith —), Group Genius. The Creative Power of Collaboration (2007)  Non traduit
Schmetterer (Bob —), Osez. Allier stratégie et créativité
Schnetzler (Nadja —), The Idea Machine. How Idea can be produced industrially  Non traduit
Scholz (Enno —) & Henningsen (Frank —), HypeIMT (2004)  Non traduit
Schrage ………… Serious Play. How the World's Best Companies Simulate to Innovate (1999)  Non traduit
Schumpeter (Joseph —), Capitalisme,Socialisme et démocratie (1942, 1964)
Schwarz F ( …… ), The A to Z of Idea Management for Organizational Improvement and Innovation (2007)   Non traduit
Sérédinsky (Avraam —), ……………
Seybold (Patricia —), Outside Innovation. How Your Customers Will Co-Design Your Company's Future………   Non traduit
Shiba
Silverstein
Skarzynski (Peter —) et Rowan Gibson, Innovation to the Core (2008)  Non traduit
Sloane
Slywotsky (Adrian —), David Morrison, Ted Moser, Kevin Mundt & James Quella, Patterns. 30 dynamiques de profit (1999)
Sutton (Robert —), 11,5 Idées décalées pour innover. Le guide pratique de l'innovation pour tous les managers qui veulent faire bouger les choseses
Swiners (Jean-Louis ) et Jean-Michel Briet, Warketing. Une autre vision de la stratégie (199…)
Swiners (Jean-Louis ) et Jean-Michel Briet, L'Intelligence créative au-delà du brainstorming, 2004
 
T
Terninko (John —), Alla Zusman & Boris Zlotin, Systematic Innovation   Non traduit
Terwiesch (Christian —) & Karl Ulrich, Innovation Tournaments: Creating and Selecting Exceptional Opportunities (2009)   Non traduit
Thomke (……
Toulemonde (Gilles —), i-Nova
Trout (Jack —), Repositionning
Tucker Rober —) Driving Growth Through Innovation : How Leading Firms Are Transforming Their Futures (2008)   Non traduit
 
U
Ulwick (Anthony —),  Non traduit       
Ulwick (Anthony —), What Customers Want. Using Outcome-Driven Innovation to Create Breakthrough Products and Services  Non traduit
Utterback (James —), Mastering the Dynamics of Innovation,  Non traduit
Utterback (James —), Bengt-Arne Vedin, Eduardo Alvarez, Sten Ekman, Susan Wallssh Sanderson, Bruce Tether, Roberto Verganti, Design Inspired Innovation (2006)  Non traduit
 
V
Verganti (Roberto —), Design Driven Innovation (2009)   Non traduit
Von Hippel (Eric —), The Sources of Innovation (1994)   Non traduit
Von Hippel —), …………………………, Creativity at 3M (1999)   Non traduit
Von Hippel (Eric —), Democratizing Innovation (2005)   Non traduit
Von Hippel ( eric —), ………………………, Customers as Innovators (2009)   Non traduit
Von Oech (Roger —), A Whack on the Side of the Head. How You Can Be More Creative
 
W
Wallas (Graham —), The Art of Thought (  Non traduit
Wentz Die Innovation Maschine   Non traduit
Wheelright (Steven —) & …… , Revolutionizing Product Development. Quantum Leaps in Speed, Efficiency, and Quality, ……   Non traduit
Wiefels
Wolcott (Robert —) et Lippitz (Michael —) Grow from Within. Mastering Corporate Entrepreneurship and Innovation (2010)  Non traduit
Wood (Andrew —) et Antoine Héron, 101 Idées pour Améliorer ……… 


S

SANDBERG (Birgitta —)
Managing and Marketing Radical Innovations.
Marketing New Technology
(2008)

             
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Pas de photo connue   (2008)   Insertion image   Insertion image


SAWHNEY (Mohanbir —), PRANDELLI ( Emanuela —)
& VERONA (Gianmario —)
Collaborating With Customers to Innovate
Conceiving and Marketing Products in the Networking Age

(2010)

             
Sawhney
Emanuela Prandelli
Gianmario Verona
Collaborating with Customers
Mohanbir Sawhney,
professeur de marketing
à la Kellogg University
  Emanuela Prandelli
Université de Bocconi
  Gianmario Verona   Collaborating with Customers to Innovate. Conceiving and Marketing Products in the Networking Age
(2010)
             

Le radar de l'innovation

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•
•
Le radar des 12 dimensions de l'innovation            
Tag : ………
       

 

     

SARAZIN (Benoît —),
Misez sur les ruptures de marché.
20 histoires d'innovations réussies
             
•
•

             

SAWYER (Keith —),
Group Genius.
The Creative Power of Collaboration
(2007)
             
Keith Sawyer
•

250L
            L'invention du VTT
Basing much of his work on that of mentor Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi—who writes about reaching the state of heightened consciousness he calls flow—Sawyer offers guidelines for creating group flow.  

Mythes
• Creativity comes from the unconscious. (“It is mostly conscious, hard work.”)
• Children are more creative than adults. (“Children aren’t as creative as we think they are.” Creativity is a “long and difficult path.”)
• Creativity represents the individual’s inner spirit. (The works represent “the characteristic markers of our culture and time period.”)
• Creativity is spontaneous inspiration. (“Formal training and conscious deliberation are essential.”)
  • Creativity is the same thing as originality. (“All creativity includes elements of imitation and tradition. There is no such thing as a completely novel work.”)
• Fine art is more creative than craft. (“Our culture is biased toward creative products that have no function other than pleasure. But this division is culturally and historically relative.”)
             
•
•

             

SAWYER (Keith —)
Explaining Creativity.
The Science of Human Innovation
( 2006)
             
Sawyer
•
•
             
   

SCHMETTERER (Bob —)
Osez.
Allier stratégie et créativité
         
• •   •
2003   Au moment de la publication de ce livre, Bob Schmetterer était président-directeur général d'Euro RSCG Worldwide et directeur général délégué de Havas. La méthodologie (publicitaire) de la CBI (Creative Business Idea)
Exemple : La passerelle de Puerto Madero, joignant Buenos Aires à Madero Este réalisée par Santagio Calatrava
Le musée Guggenheim de Bilbao
réalisé par Frank Gehry sous l'impulsion de Thomas Krens

SCHUMPETER (Joseph —)
Capitalisme,Socialisme et Démocratie (1963)
Capitalism ,Socialism et Democracy
(1942)
             
•
•
•
•
Joseph Schumpeter   1942   1964 (?)  
   
 

 19 février 2010
SCHNETLZER (Nadja —)
The Idea Machine.
How Idea can be produced industrially
(2004)
             
•
•
•   •
Nadja Schnetzler,
co-fondatrice avec Markus Mettler
du cabinet Brainstore
  Die Ideemaschine.
Methode statt Geitesblitz.
Wie Ideen industriell produziet Werden
  The Idea Machine.
How Idea can be produced industrially.
 
  La machine à idée: 5 étapes
(la dernière, la fusée de Tintin en bas à droite,
est la moins visible)
La machine à idée de Brainstore (Bienne/Biel, Suisse)
Tag


SCHRAGE (Michael —) 
Serious Play.
How the World's Best Companies Simulate to Innovate
(1999)
             
•
•
•
•
             
Tag : Prototyping
       
   

  Vendredi 19 mars 2010
SCHWARZ (James —)
The A to Z of Idea Management
for Organizational Improvement and Innovation (2007)
             
Schwarz
The A to Z Idea Management
••
James Schwarz, CEO du cabinet de consultants Total Quality Systems Software (TQS)   The A to Z, 2d edition, 2007        

•••
Tag : Amélioration partagée, Management des idées, Système de gestion des suggestions

   Vendredi 25 février 2010
SÉRÉDINSKI (Avraam —)
40 Principes d'Innovation (2004)
Et soudain apparut l'inventeur

             
•
4O principes
TRIZ. Et soudain le tailleur de Porthos trouva la solution   TRIZ. L'ascenseur double pour piano
Avraam   Pour insertion        
             
TRIZ. La robe de mariée sur roulement à billes
 
TRIZ. L'aérodrome circulaire    
    Pour insertion   Une piste d'envol circulaire pour que les avions puissent prendre leur élan. L'idée a été retenue par la marine pour ses porte-avions    
Une expertise très difficile à apprécier au vu des exemples donnés. Par exemple une séance de Porthos chez son tailleur
Tag :TRIZ

Pour mémoire (Wikipédia)
  TRIZ
 Voir à : Mark ATKINS, Ideation International
   


 Jean-Louis Swiners. Le 9 octobre 2010
SEYBOLD (Patricia —)
Get Inside the Lives of Your Customers (2009)
Outside Innovation
How Your Customers Will Co-Design Your Company's Future (2006)
                 
Patricia Seybold
Harvard
•   Let's Customers Co-Design   The Customer Revolution
Ca. 60 ans. Fondatrice et CEO de The Seybold Group Get Inside the Lives
of Your Customers
(2009)
Outside Innovation (2006) Let Customers Co-Design Your Customer-Critical Initiatives.
Why and When to Use Customer Scenario Mapping
( 2005)
(2001)
Une formule : ………… = ……… x ………
Tag : Co-Innovation, Customer Scenario, Innovation collaborative, Innovation collective, Innovation orientée clients, Lead-users, utilisateur de pointe

Pour mémoire (Wikipédia)

o o o
Patricia Seybold
   
CEO of Patricia Seybold Group, author of Customers.com, The Customer Revolution, Outside Innovation, and co-author of Brandchild. Her books, (particularly Customers.com), discuss the impact that technology and evolving customer behavior have on business trends.   Ms. Seybold is a strong advocate for the idea that customers should be engaged in the brainstorming work that precedes the conception of successful products and services.
Date : Février 2010  


SILVERSTEIN (David —), DECARLO (Neil —), SLOCUM (Michael —)
Insourcing Innovation.
How to Achieve Competitive Excellence Using TRIZ

                 
David Silverstein
•
•
•   Outsourcing
David Silverstein   Neil DeCarlo   Michael Slocum       2008
Tag : Lean Six Sigma, TRIZ
           
   

SILVERSTEIN (David —), SAMUEL (Philip —)& DECARLO (Neil —)
The Innovator's Toolkit.
50+ Techniques for Predictable and Sustainable Organic Growth
(2008)

                 
David Silverstein
•
•
Innovator's Toolkit
   
David Silverstein   Philip Samuel   Neil DeCarlo   2008    
Tag : Lean Six Sigma
           
   

SKARZINSKI (Peter —) & GIBSON ( Rowan —)
Innovation to the Core.
A Blueprint for Transforming the Way Your Company Innovate
(2008)

             
•   • •   •
             

SLOANE (Paul —),
The Innovative Leader (2007)

             
Paul Sloane
The Innovative Leader
•
•
Paul   2007        
Tag : Innovation et leadership
       

 

1. Copy someone else’s idea.
One of the best ways to innovate is to pinch an idea that works elsewhere and apply it in your business. Henry Ford saw the production line working in a meat packing plant and then applied to the automobile industry thereby dramatically reducing assembly times and costs.
2. Ask customers.
If you simply ask your customers how you could improve your product or service they will give you plenty of ideas for incremental innovations. Typically they will ask for new features or that you make your product cheaper, faster, easier to use, available in different styles and colours etc. Listen to these requests carefully and choose the ones that will really pay back.
3. Observe customers.
Do not just ask them, watch them. Try to see how customers use your products. Do they use them in new ways? This was what Levi Strauss saw when they found that customers ripped the jeans – so they brought a line of pre-ripped jeans. Heinz noticed that people stored their sauce jars upside down so they designed an upside down bottle.
4. Use difficulties and complaints.
If customers have difficulties with any aspect of using your product or if they register complaints then you have a strong starting point for innovations. Make your product easier to use, eliminate the current inconveniences and introduce improvements that overcome the complaints.
5. Combine.
Combine your product with something else to make something new. It works at all levels. Think of a suitcase with wheels, or a mobile phone with a camera or a flight with a massage.
6. Eliminate. What could you take out of your product or service to make it better? Dell eliminated the computer store, Amazon eliminated the bookstore, the Sony Walkman eliminated speakers and record functions.
7. Ask your staff.
Challenge the people who work in the business to find new and better ways to do things and new and better ways to please customers. They are close to the action and can see opportunities for innovation. Often they just need encouragement to bring forward great ideas.
8. Plan. Include targets for new products and services in your business plan. Put it onto the balanced scorecard. Write innovation into everyone’s objectives. Measure it and it will happen.
9. Run brainstorms.
Have regular brainstorm meetings where you generate a large quantity of new product ideas. Use diverse groups from different areas of the business and include a provocative outsider e.g. a customer or supplier.
10. Examine patents.
Check through patents that apply in your field. Are there some that you could license? Are some expiring so that you can now use that method? Is there a different way of achieving the essential idea in a patent?
  11. Collaborate.
Work with another company who can take you to places you can’t go. Choose a partner with a similar philosophy but different skills. That is what Mercedes did with Swatch when they came up with the Smart car.
12. Minimize or maximize.
Take something that is standard in the industry and minimise or maximise it. Ryanair minimized price and customer service. Starbucks maximised price and customer experience. It is better to be different than to be better.
13. Run a contest.
Ask members of the public to suggest great new product ideas. Offer a prize. Give people a clear focussed goal and they will surprise you with novel ideas. Good for innovation and PR.
14. Ask – what if?
Do some lateral thinking by asking what ifÖ..? Challenge every boundary and assumption that applies in your field. You and your group will come up with amazing ideas once the normal constraints are lifted.
15. Watch the competition.
Do not slavishly follow the competition but watch them intelligently. The small guys are often the most innovative so see if you can adapt or license one of their ideas – or even buy the company!
16. Outsource.
Subcontract your new product development challenge to a design company, a University, a start-up or a crowdsourcing site like InnoCentive or NineSigma.
17. Use open innovation.
Big consumer products companies like Proctor and Gamble or Reckitt Benckiser encourage developers to bring novel products to them. They are flexible on IP protection and give a clear focus on what they are looking for. A large proportion of their new products now start life outside the company.
18. Adapt a product to a new use.
Find an entirely different application for an existing product. De Beers produced industrial diamonds but found a new use for diamonds when they introduced the concept of engagement rings. It opened up a large new market for them.
19. Try Triz.
Triz is a systematic method for solving problems. It can be applied in many fields but is particularly useful in engineering and product design. Triz gives you a toolbox of methods to solve contradictions e.g. how can we make this product run faster but with less power?

20. Go back in time. Look back at methods and ser.vices that were used in your sector years ago but have now fallen out of use. Can you bring one back in a new updated form? It has been said that Speed Dating is really a relaunch of a Victorian dance format where ladies had cards marked with appointments.
21. Use social networks.
Follow trends and ask questions on groups like Twitter or Facebook. Ask what people want to see in future products or what the big new idea will be. Many early adopters are active on social network groups and will happily respond with suggestions

SLYWOTZKY (Slywotzky —), MORRISON (David —), MOSER (Ted —),
MUNDT (Kevin—) & QUELLA ( James —)

Patterns.
30 dynamiques de profit
(1999)
             

•

  • •   •
Adrian   David MorrIson   Ted Moser   Kevin Mundt
             
•   • •   •
    1999   1999    
Adrian Slywottsky était à l'époque vice-président de Mercer Management Consulting (aujpourd'hui Olivier Wymann)

Ce livre avait été précédé de Value Migration (199…) et The Profit Zone (199 …)

Après avoir élaboré une table de Mendelev des opportunités d'innovation, en avoir dénombré 30, il les explore systématiquement.
Le livre date un peu mais la méhode reste superbe.

• Une introduction : Picasso et l'art de la stratégie
• Un appendice : le jeu d'échecs : une métaphore de grande valeur

• Des exemples :
Amazon.com
Dell computer
Bang & Olufsen
Nokia
SAP

Etc.
 
•
Table périodique de la stratégie

SLYWOTZKY (……)
How to Grow ……

             
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Tag
Pour mémoire (Wikipédia)
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SUTTON (Robert —)
11,5 Idées décalées pour innover.
Le guide pratique de l'innovation pour tous les managers
qui veulent faire bouger les choses
(2001)
 
•   •   •   •
        2001    
         
Exploiter
Explorer
1
       
1,5
       
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3
       
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Résumé        
         

Le 11 mars 2010
SWINERS (Jean-Louis —) & BRIET (Jean-Michel —)
Warketing !
Une autre vision de la stratégie
(1993)
             
•
•
Warketing ! Une autre vision de la stratégie   ••
Jean-Louis Swiners, né en 1935.
Professeur à
HEC Executive Edication
  Jean-Michel Briet       Modèle C3 (Ohmae)
             
•
•
•   ••
        Le Marketing de combat   Grille

Tag : Marketing de combat

Pour mémoire (Wikipédia)
o o o
   
………  
………
Date  
o o o
   
………  
………
Date  

Le 15 novembre 2013
SWINERS (Jean-Louis —) et BRIET (Jean-Michel —),
L'intelligence créative au-delà du brainstorming.
Innover en équipe
, 2004
         
Jean-Louis Swiners ……

•

 

•

Jean-Louis Swiners.
Né en 1935. 78 ans
Maxima, 2004
Les trois grands rôles psycho-sociologiques
de l'innovation en équipe
Les trois ressorts émotionnels (psychologiques et socio-psychologiques ) de l'homme d'innovation
 
• Le défi (la provocation)
 
• L'indignation
 
• Le challenge
         
•  
Largeur
  Hauteur
La répartition des types psychologiques du MBTI   La matrice Autre-Autre    
  La répartition des types psychologiques du MBTI au sein d'une population de cadres supérieurs. Les hommes d'organisation(ESTJ et ISTJ) et d'action (ENTJ) sont sur-représentés. Les hommes d'imagination (ENTP) sous représentés
         
Largeur  
Largeur
  Hauteur
Les couples homme d'innovation/ homme de management   La grille de la résilience psychologique    
Tag :MBTI, résilience


T


                 
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Tag : TRIZ
           
   
… Date
TERNINKO (John —), ZUSSMAN (Alla —) & ZLOTIN (Boris —)
Systematic Innovation.
An Introduction to TRIZ

             
•
•
••
  •
John Terninko   Alla Zusman   Boris Zlotin   Pour insertion 

  Tutoriaux
             
•
•
•

•

Pour insertion d'un tutorial
Pour insertion d'un tutorial
Pour insertion d'un tutorial
Pour insertion d'un tutorial

Les tutoriaux de Zussmann et Zlotin publiés sur le site d'Ideation International et validés en 2009 ôte toute crédibilité à l'ensemble
Tag :TRIZ

Pour mémoire (Wikipédia)

  TITRE

   
Date


TERWIESCH ( Christian —) & ULRICH ( Karl —),
Innovation Tournaments.
Creating and Selecting Exceptional Opportunities
(2009)
             
•
•
•
•
Christian Terwiesch   Kark Ulrich   2009    
Le 6 mars 2010
THOMKE (Stefan —)
Experimentation

             
•
•
••
  ••
Stefan Thomke   HBR   Pour insertion    Pour insertion 
•••
Tag :

 

12 mars 2010
TOULEMONDE (Gilles —)
i-Nova
         
Gilles Toulemonde
i-Nova Processus
••
Pour insertion   Le processus d'innovation      
Lyon
Tag :



TROUT (Jack —) &
Repositionning

             
•
••
••
••
JPositionning   Trout   W…  .   Repositionning

Tag

     

 
TROUT (Jack —) & RIES (Al —)
Marketing Warfare


             
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••
••
••
Marketing Warfare       Al Ries   Le marketing guerrier

Tag
             
••
 
•
••
La matrice stratégique            

Wikipedia : Marketing de combat
     

TUCKER (Robert —)
Driving Growth Through Innovation.
How Leading Firms Are Transforming Their Futures
(2008)
                 
•
•
•
••
Robert Tucker                
TAG : GE, BMW, PROCTER & GAMBLE, Lafley
           
   

U

 

22 février 2010

ULWICK (Anthony —)
What Customers Want.
Using Outcome-Driven Innovation
to Create Breakthrough Products and Services (2005)
Turn Customer Input into Innovations (2002, 2009)
The Customer-Centered Innovation Map (2009)
Business Strategy Formulation.
Theory, Process, and the Intellectual Revolution (1999)


             
•
•
HBR   HBR
Anthony Ulwick,
Fondateur et PDG de Strategyn
  2005   HBR (2002, 2009)   HBR (2009)
             
Business Strategy Formulation
HBR 2002
•   •
(1999)   (2002, 2009)        

 

 

Anthony Ulwick, Fondateur et PDG de Strategyn, ………… Floride, WorldWide, Neuilly/Seine
Tag : Christensen (Innovator's Solution), Innovation orientée clients, Jobs-to-be-done, Processus de l'innovation, Stratégie

Mythes et réalités de l'innovation

 
•




UTTERBACK (James —), Bengt-Arne Vedin, Eduardo Alvarez,
Sten Ekman, Susan Wallsh Sanderson, Bruce Tether,
VERGANTI (Roberto —)
Design-Inspired Innovation ( 200 …)
             
•
•
•
•
James Utterback       Roberto Verganti    
Tag : Design

   

V

VERGANTI ( Roberto —)
Design-Driven Innovation
             
•
•
•
•
             
Tag : Design




von HIPPEL (Eric —)
The Sources of Innovation (1994)
Creativity at 3M (1999)

 
•
•
  •
Von Hippel et un lead-user  
1994
  Creatity at 3M (1999)
   
Tag : Innovation orientée client, lead-users

von HIPPEL (Eric —)
Democratizing Innovation (2005)
Customers as Innovators (2009)
 
•   • •   •
von Hippel, né en 1941,
68 ans. Professeur au MIT
  2005   Correlation entre la co-innovation et l'attrait d'une innovation   Customers as Innovators HBR 2009
         
Tag : Co-innovation, Innovation orientée client, lead-users, Mountain-bike, proam, Rodeo kayaking

… Date
Von HIPPEL

             
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•
••
  ••
Pour insertion   Pour insertion   Pour insertion    Pour insertion 
•••
Tag :

Pour mémoire (Wikipédia)

  TITRE

Eric von Hippel (born August 27, 1941) is an economist and a professor at the MIT Sloan School of Management, specializing in the nature and economics of distributed and open innovation. He is best known for his work developing the concept of user innovation – that end-users, rather than manufacturers, are responsible for a large amount of new innovation. In order to describe this phenomenon, he introduced the term lead user in 1986. von Hippel's work has applications in business strategy and free/open source software (FLOSS) and von Hippel is one of the most highly cited social scientist writing on FLOSS.
   
Date
  TITRE

rom Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Lead user is a term developed by Eric von Hippel in 1986. His definition for lead user is:
Lead users face needs that will be general in a marketplace – but face them months or years before the bulk of that marketplace encounters them, and
Lead users are positioned to benefit significantly by obtaining a solution to those needs.
In other words: Lead users are users of a product that currently experience needs still unknown to the public and who also benefit greatly if they obtain a solution to these needs.
Contents [hide]
1 Lead User Method Introduction
2 Review of Existing Literature
3 Potential Disadvantages of the Lead User Method
4 Examples of Lead User Method
5 See also
6 External links
[edit]Lead User Method IntroductionThe Lead User Method is a market research tool that may be used by companies and / or individuals seeking to develop breakthrough products. Lead User methodology was originally developed by Dr. Eric von Hippel of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) and first described in the July 1986 issue of Management Science. In contrast to the traditional market research techniques that collect information from the users at the center of the target market, the Lead User method takes a different approach, collecting information about both needs and solutions from the leading edges of the target market and from analogue markets, markets facing similar problems in a more extreme form. The methodology involves four major steps: Start of the Lead User process, Identification of Needs and Trends, Identification of Lead Users and Concept Design (Workshop). The methodology is based upon the idea that breakthrough products may be developed by identifying leading trends in the to-be-developed product’s associated marketplace(s). Once the trend or broader problem to be solved has been identified, the developers seek out “Lead Users”- people or organizations that are attempting to solve a particularly extreme or demanding version of the stated problem.
For example, a company seeking to create a breakthrough in flashlight design may seek out policemen, home inspectors, or others who require bright, efficient lights as part of their day to day business. Once these “lead users” have been identified, networking is employed and the lead users are interviewed so as to gain their insight into how they solve the problem for themselves. The lead users are also queried to determine whether they have knowledge of individuals or organizations who are considered to be “outside the market” and have even more extreme portable lighting needs than the policemen or home inspectors; in our example, these users might be photographers, divers, or movie lighting designers. (See the “Examples of Lead User Method” section of this article for more examples of lead user identification.) By learning from both the lead users and the outside-the-market users, companies may identify new methods or approaches towards creating innovative products that are true breakthroughs via ideas that may not have surfaced by simply examining existing users with traditional market research techniques.
[edit]Review of Existing LiteratureResearch on lead users emerged from studies on sources of innovation. It was first found that users (as opposed to manufacturers) are often the first to develop new products that are commercially successful (Enos 1962, von Hippel 1988, Shah 1999). Additionally, it was found that innovation by users tended to be concentrated among the “lead users” of those products and processes (von Hippel 1986, Urban and von Hippel 1988, Morrison, Roberts and von Hippel 2000, Shah 1999, Luthje 2000). These “lead users” were individuals or organizations who had experienced needs for a given innovation earlier than the majority of the target market (von Hippel 1986).
Various studies have explored the effectiveness of this theory in terms of identifying any user innovations. The effect found in these studies tends to be very large; for example, Urban and Von Hippel (1988) found that 82 percent of a given lead-user cluster had developed their own version of, or had modified a specific type of, the industrial product under study… whereas only 1 percent of the non-lead users had done this.
Empirical studies have also found that many of the innovations developed by users have commercial attractiveness. For example, Urban and Von Hippel (1988) found that lead user theory can be effectively utilized in industrial software product development; Morrison, Roberts, and Von Hippel (2000) found that many IT innovations developed by libraries had broader potential value; and Luthje (2003) found that 48 percent of surgical innovations developed by surgeons in university clinics in Germany could be produced as commercial products.
Based on its widespread success, it has been suggested that the lead user methodology should be integrated into corporate new product development efforts (Urban and Von Hippel, 1988). Companies may benefit (to a large extent) as they try to learn from lead users about the needs and solutions encountered at the leading edge of the market. Increasingly, this type of customer integration is being discussed among innovation management scholars (Enkel, Javier, and Gassmann, 2005; Luthje and Herstatt, 2004). The idea is also spreading rapidly in the business world (Coyne, 2000; Dehne, 2003; Intrachooto, 2004); for example, lead-user concepts developed and used at 3M showed product sales potential that was an average of eight times higher than for sales of products using more traditional development concepts / processes (Lilien et al., 2002).
[edit]Potential Disadvantages of the Lead User MethodWhile the lead user methodology has proven to be very successful, select literature highlights some product development scenarios in which the Lead User method may be less effective. For example, the following was pointed out on October 14, 2007 on “TechITEasy.org”:
“Highly secretive industries where lead users may not feel comfortable or may not be able to disclose information and knowledge are not suited for this [lead user] process;”
“The lengthy [nature of the lead user] process can prevent this methodology from being applied effectively in industries with really short term innovation cycles or where quick turnaround from research to market delivery is required;”
“The [lead user method] LUM is better suited to meet the needs of the industrial goods market rather than consumer goods market as lead users of industrial goods can typically be identified more reliably than lead users of most consumer goods.”
http://techiteasy.org/2007/10/14/connecting-technology-to-market-the-lead-user-methodology/
Literature also suggests that an additional obstacle to the adoption of this kind of process is related to a general resistance to innovation and / or change that can be found in typically bureaucratic organizations; these organizations tend to resist disruptive changes in processes which many force the company to evolve, (although this is exactly the purpose of such an approach). While the lead user methodology can reliably lead to breakthroughs, adopting the approach can be difficult for some organizations and on the whole, the technique itself is useful to the extent that the product and / or service under study is lead user friendly (i.e. if it’s not a top-secret or quick time-to-market idea). [need reference to the mention literature]
[edit]Examples of Lead User MethodThe lead user method can be utilized in any industry and at any level of product complexity. The following are examples where the Lead User method was utilized to create a new product which satisfied a specific need:
3M
The lead user method was utilized in 3M’s Medical-Surgical Division to develop a breakthrough surgical drape product. 3M assembled a team of lead users which included a veterinarian surgeon, a makeup artist, doctors from developing countries and military medics.
(Reference: http://www.leaduser.com videos)
Hilti AG
Hilti utilized the lead user method to develop a simplified pipe hanger. Hilti put together a lead user group consisting of lead layout engineers, researchers from construction departments of institutes, an engineer from a professional organization in Bonn, and two engineers from municipal building departments.
(Reference:http://web.mit.edu/evhippel/www/papers/Herstatt-EvH%20Journal%20Product%20Innov%20Management.pdf)
Nortel
Nortel utilized the lead user method to develop a new class of web applications for voice, video and data. Nortel put together a group of lead users including law enforcement professionals, paramedics, military personnel, animal trackers and professional storm trackers.
(Reference: http://www.leaduser.com videos)
   
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On pouvait trouver dans édition américaine la technique du role-storming (consultants virtuels) qui avait été sautée dans la traduction française, Créatif de Choc, First, 1993).
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